The Analysis of Drive Issues

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&lt;br&gt;
 
 
  '''Page under construction, but hopefully is starting to be helpful'''
 
  '''Page under construction, but hopefully is starting to be helpful'''
  
There are a number of drive related errors, and many of them are similar, but point to very different issues.  Some experience in analyzing these errors is therefore recommended, because the steps to resolve the problem are highly dependent on what the '''real''' problem is.  For example, some errors point to a bad cable, other very similar messages point to a failing drive, and others may point to a bad disk controller, poor or incorrect driver, bad or insufficient power to the drive, etc.  There have been too many cases of drives thrown out or returned by an RMA process, when the problem was just a bad cable.  This page has been designed to help with the analysis of drive problems, and often to recommend the next steps to take.
+
: '''Preface'''
  
The two most important tools for initial analysis are the syslog and the SMART report.
+
: There are many kinds of drive related errors, and many of them can appear to be very similar, but point to very different issues.  Some experience in analyzing these errors is very necessary, because the steps to resolve the problem are highly dependent on what the '''real''' problem is. For example, some errors point to a bad cable, other very similar messages point to a failing drive, and others may point to a bad disk controller, poor or incorrect driver, or bad or insufficient power to the drive, etc. <font color=blue>'''There have been far too many cases of drives thrown out or returned for RMA replacement, when the problem was just a bad cable!'''</font>  This page has been designed to help with the analysis of drive problems, and often to recommend what steps to take.
* Getting the syslog
 
** Use [[UnRAID_Add_Ons#UnMENU|UnMENU]], go to the Syslog plugin and view and download the syslog from there
 
** [[Troubleshooting#Capturing_your_syslog|Capturing your syslog]]
 
** [[Viewing the System Log]]
 
** As of version 4.5beta2 of unRAID: - May now read syslog directly via browser by referencing 'http://tower/log/syslog' (substitute 'tower' with your server name). 
 
* Getting the SMART report
 
** [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Troubleshooting page, Obtaining a SMART report]] section
 
  
&lt;br&gt;
+
: Consider the many components between a program that wants to read or save data, and the physical drive surface that will actually store it.  Your program wants to access some data, so requests it, with a 'read block of data' request, but instead of the data it receives an error code or message back, called a 'read error'.  We will assume that the program is running fine, so what other components, software or hardware, touched it and might be reporting an error?
 +
:* the file system (the read request goes first to it)
 +
:* the OS I/O caching system (any I/O may go through the various system buffers and caches)
 +
:* the drive controller driver
 +
:* the PCI interface to the controller (includes the actual transfer of packets from the busses to the controller)
 +
:* the drive controller firmware (the software on the controller that actually manages the data flow)
 +
:* the controller port connector
 +
:* the SATA cable connector
 +
:* the SATA cable (could be a backframe connection)
 +
:* the SATA cable connector to the drive
 +
:* the drive's SATA connector
 +
:* the low level SATA link part of the drive firmware
 +
:* the higher level data managing part of the drive firmware
 +
:* the drive's caching systems
 +
:* the drive's mechanical data storage systems (platters and platter spinning, heads and head movement, seeking, sector ID'ing, reading, and writing)
 +
:* the actual drive surface
 +
: And you have to add in power issues to the above, power to the system, power to the controller, and power to the drive - any of which could cause unusual issues, hard to diagnose
 +
: And that's not all of them! There are more components that could be added between some of the above, and a number of them could be broken down into additional subsystems that could be listed above.
 +
 
 +
: But the point that should really stand out from the above is that the physical drive is only a small part of the whole data handling path!  To be fair, possible issues are not evenly distributed across the list.  Bad sector errors are much more likely than PCI system errors.  And bad SATA cable errors are also much more likely than many of the others.  But the big point is that when you get a read or write error, it often has NOTHING to do with the drive!  That's why I divide the errors into two classes - interface issues and drive issues.  Some errors actually involve the physical drive, the rest involve the interface to the drive.  Understanding that distinction is important to diagnosing drive errors.
 +
 
 +
: So just to repeat the lesson:  <font color=blue>'''There have been far too many drives discarded, when there was nothing wrong with them!'''</font>
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
== Analytical Tools ==
 +
 
 +
: '''The two most important tools for initial analysis of drive issues are the syslog and the SMART report.'''
 +
 
 +
: For unRAID v6 and above, you will find them in the Diagnostics zip file.  Please see [http://lime-technology.com/forum/index.php?topic=39257 Need help? Read me first!].
 +
 
 +
: For older unRAID versions (any v4 or v5):
 +
:* Getting the syslog
 +
:** Using [[UnRAID_Add_Ons#UnMENU|UnMENU]], go to the Syslog plugin and view and download the syslog from there
 +
:** [[Troubleshooting#Capturing_your_syslog|Capturing your syslog]]
 +
:** [[Viewing the System Log]]
 +
:** As of version 4.5beta2 of unRAID: - May now read syslog directly via browser by referencing 'http://tower/log/syslog' (substitute 'tower' with your server name). 
 +
:* Getting the SMART report
 +
:** [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Troubleshooting page, Obtaining a SMART report]] section
 +
 
 +
<br>
 
==Drive problems by keyword==
 
==Drive problems by keyword==
&lt;br&gt;
+
<br>
 +
These words or phrases are found within the syslog within lines including and following the phrase "exception EMASK".  Some are error flags, some are not.  Look up the words you see in the list below, to help you determine what kind of issue you have, and possible steps to take.  Drive issues are primarily either drive interface issues (the disk controller, drivers, cables, and power to the drive) or physical issues with the drive itself.  In general, if it looks like an interface issue, then the drive is almost certainly completely fine, no matter how many errors you see, and even if it has been disabled!
 +
<br><br>
 +
 
 
* 10B8B
 
* 10B8B
** &quot;10 bit to 8 bit&quot; error flag
+
** "10 bit to 8 bit" error flag
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]], [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.234|Drive interface issue #4]]
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]], [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.234|Drive interface issue #4]]
Line 66: Line 93:
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]] and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], but could be others too
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]] and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], but could be others too
 +
* HSM violation
 +
** invalid 'Host State Machine' state or response, "STATUS value doesn't match HSM requirement"
 +
** this error could be caused by almost anything, such as buggy driver, faulty device (buggy or crashed firmware on the drive), buggy firmware on the disk controller, and/or bad SATA cable
 +
** invariably, this error is ultimately fixed by an upgrade somewhere, to the driver or to one of the firmwares; unfortunately an upgrade may not yet be available, so a downgrade may be necessary instead (or live with it!)
 +
* ICRC
 +
** interface CRC error
 +
** usually indicates a bad cable
 +
** check each of the [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issues]] below, but most likely it is [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]]
 
* IDNF
 
* IDNF
 
** sector ID Not Found error flag
 
** sector ID Not Found error flag
Line 100: Line 135:
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** usually a [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_Interface_Issues|Drive Interface Issue]]
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]], [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.233|Drive interface issue #3]], possibly others too
 
** see [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.231|Drive interface issue #1]], [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.232|Drive interface issue #2]], and [[The_Analysis_of_Drive_Issues#Drive_interface_issue_.233|Drive interface issue #3]], possibly others too
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
  
 
==Drive problems by error message==
 
==Drive problems by error message==
&lt;br&gt;
+
<br>
There are many kinds of drive errors.  Examine each section below for the '''highlighted key words''' that most closely match the errors you see, in your syslog.
+
There are many kinds of drive errors.  Examine each section below for the '''highlighted key words''' that most closely match the errors you see in your syslog.
  
The examples below will often include the ATA channel number involved with a particular drive.  The actual numbers are not important, and will be different for each drive.  The channel itself is usually something like ''ata3'' or ''ata12'', the actual attached drive will be something like ''ata2.00'' and ''ata13.01''.  Most will end in ''.00'', as there is only one drive per SATA channel, but IDE or IDE emulating channels may have 2 (eg. ata4.00 and ata4.01, master and slave), and port multipliers and SAS channels can have even more, such as ata5.00, ata5.01, ata5.02, ata5.03, and ata5.04.
+
The examples below will often include the ATA channel number involved with a particular drive.  The actual numbers are not important, and will be different for each drive.  The channel itself is usually something like ''ata3'' or ''ata12'', the actual attached drive will be something like ''ata2.00'' and ''ata13.01''.  Most will end in ''.00'', as there is only one drive per SATA channel, but IDE or IDE emulating channels may have 2 (eg. ata4.00 and ata4.01, master and slave), and port multipliers and SAS channels can have even more, such as ata5.00, ata5.01, ata5.02, ata5.03, and ata5.04.  For more information on these ata drive symbols, see [[Drive Symbols]].
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
  
 
-----
 
-----
 
===Drive Interface Issues===
 
===Drive Interface Issues===
These are problems with the cables and connections to the drive, both power and data, or the quality of the power supplied.  If your errors match one of these, then almost certainly, '''your drive is completely fine'''.  There have been many drives returned or thrown out, after numerous errors similar to the following issues, that were entirely the fault of the cables or connectors used, NOT the drive itself.
+
These are problems with the cables and connections to the drive, both power and data, or the quality of the power supplied.  If your errors match one of these, then almost certainly, '''your drive is completely fine'''.  There have been many drives returned or thrown out, after numerous errors similar to the following issues, that were entirely the fault of the cables or power or connectors used, NOT the drive itself.
  
 
====Drive interface issue #1====
 
====Drive interface issue #1====
  
 +
An example:
 
  ata3.00: exception Emask 0x50 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x280900 action 0x6 frozen
 
  ata3.00: exception Emask 0x50 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x280900 action 0x6 frozen
 
  ata3.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, '''interface fatal error'''
 
  ata3.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, '''interface fatal error'''
  ata3: SError: { '''10B8B BadCRC''' }  often also '''DisPar''' and '''UnrecovData''' and '''HostInt'''
+
  ata3: SError: { '''10B8B BadCRC''' }  often may also include '''DisPar''', '''UnrecovData''', and/or '''HostInt'''
  
  &quot;Your machine seems to be suffering genuine link layer problem.
+
From an expert:
 +
  "Your machine seems to be suffering genuine link layer problem.
 
  In most cases, this indicates hardware problem and in my experience,
 
  In most cases, this indicates hardware problem and in my experience,
 
  common causes are (in the order of ballpark frequency)...
 
  common causes are (in the order of ballpark frequency)...
Line 125: Line 162:
 
  # device and controller don't like each other on 3Gbps
 
  # device and controller don't like each other on 3Gbps
 
  # cable too long or flaky connector (especially with eSATA cables or genders or backplanes)
 
  # cable too long or flaky connector (especially with eSATA cables or genders or backplanes)
  # faulty controller or drive&quot;
+
  # faulty controller or drive"
 
  --
 
  --
 
  tejun  (http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/12/2/426)
 
  tejun  (http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/12/2/426)
 
  ''(written by one of the foremost experts)''
 
  ''(written by one of the foremost experts)''
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
 
 +
The presence of '''BadCRC''' is a pretty good indicator of a poor quality SATA cable.  However, if a better cable does not solve the issue, then it is probably a power problem (loose power cable or backplane connection, poor connectors, poor power splitter, overloaded power supply, too many drives on power rail, bad power supply, etc).
 +
 
 +
<br><br>
 
-----
 
-----
 
====Drive interface issue #2====
 
====Drive interface issue #2====
  
 +
An example:
 
     res 40/00:00:48:19:67/00:00:1e:00:00/40 Emask 0x50 '''(ATA bus error)'''
 
     res 40/00:00:48:19:67/00:00:1e:00:00/40 Emask 0x50 '''(ATA bus error)'''
 
     ata3: SError: { UnrecovData HostInt 10B8B '''BadCRC''' }
 
     ata3: SError: { UnrecovData HostInt 10B8B '''BadCRC''' }
  
These errors are usually related to a bad cable or cable connector.  The presence of '''BadCRC''' is a pretty good indicator of a poor quality SATA cable.
+
These errors are usually related to a bad cable or cable connector, or possibly bad power.  The presence of '''BadCRC''' or '''ICRC''' is a pretty good indicator of a poor quality SATA cable.  However, if a better cable does not solve the issue, then it is probably a power problem (loose power cable or backplane connection, poor connectors, poor power splitter, overloaded power supply, too many drives on power rail, bad power supply, etc).
  
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
 
-----
 
-----
 
====Drive interface issue #3====
 
====Drive interface issue #3====
  
 +
An example:
 
     ata2.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7ff4f SErr 0x400100 action 0x6 frozen
 
     ata2.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7ff4f SErr 0x400100 action 0x6 frozen
 
     ata2.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, '''interface fatal error'''
 
     ata2.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, '''interface fatal error'''
 
     ata2: SError: { '''UnrecovData Handshk''' }
 
     ata2: SError: { '''UnrecovData Handshk''' }
  
  &quot;This is transmission error. Most common causes are power related or
+
From an expert:
 +
  "This is transmission error. Most common causes are power related or
 
  unreliable connection especially if backplanes are involved. Is the
 
  unreliable connection especially if backplanes are involved. Is the
 
  problem still reproducible? If so, can you please try to move it to
 
  problem still reproducible? If so, can you please try to move it to
  different power connector and SATA port and see what changes?&quot;
+
  different power connector and SATA port and see what changes?"
 
  --
 
  --
 
  tejun
 
  tejun
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
 
-----
 
-----
 
====Drive interface issue #4====
 
====Drive interface issue #4====
  
This is an example of what is probably a loose backplane or cable issue: (could be either the SATA connection or the power connection or both)
+
This is an example of what is probably a loose backplane or cable connection issue: (could be either the SATA connection or the power connection or both)
 
  ata7.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7 SErr 0x990000 action 0xa frozen
 
  ata7.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7 SErr 0x990000 action 0xa frozen
 
  ata7.00: irq_stat 0x00400000, '''PHY RDY changed'''
 
  ata7.00: irq_stat 0x00400000, '''PHY RDY changed'''
Line 176: Line 219:
 
If there is no backplane involved, then the same considerations apply to the cable connections, each end of both the SATA and power cables, including any power cable splitters that may be involved.  It is common after opening a computer case, to jostle the cables, and SATA cables are notorious for coming loose, if they aren't the locking type.  It is a good habit to check all SATA connections just before closing a case up.
 
If there is no backplane involved, then the same considerations apply to the cable connections, each end of both the SATA and power cables, including any power cable splitters that may be involved.  It is common after opening a computer case, to jostle the cables, and SATA cables are notorious for coming loose, if they aren't the locking type.  It is a good habit to check all SATA connections just before closing a case up.
  
Good quality SATA and power cables and splitters are strongly recommended.  Then always make certain that they are firmly connected, and not subject to vibration.  The same is even more important for backplanes, make sure that drives are firmly and well seated in their trays, and cannot be vibrated loose.
+
Good quality SATA and power cables and splitters are strongly recommended.  Always make certain that they are firmly connected, and not subject to vibration.  The same is even more important for backplanes, make sure that drives are firmly and well seated in their trays, and cannot be vibrated loose.
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
  
&lt;br&gt;
+
<br>
 
-----
 
-----
 
===Physical Drive Issues===
 
===Physical Drive Issues===
 +
 
These are actual errors from the drive itself, perhaps a failing drive, or perhaps just failing sectors.  In general, you will always want to [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Obtain a SMART report]] for the drive.
 
These are actual errors from the drive itself, perhaps a failing drive, or perhaps just failing sectors.  In general, you will always want to [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Obtain a SMART report]] for the drive.
  
Line 188: Line 232:
 
A typical example:
 
A typical example:
 
  ata3.00: cmd 60/00:10:4f:80:81/04:00:66:00:00/40 tag 2 ncq 524288 in
 
  ata3.00: cmd 60/00:10:4f:80:81/04:00:66:00:00/40 tag 2 ncq 524288 in
           res 41/40:64:eb:80:81/85:03:66:00:00/40 Emask 0x409 ('''media error''') &lt;F&gt;
+
           res 41/40:64:eb:80:81/85:03:66:00:00/40 Emask 0x409 ('''media error''') <F>
 
  ata3.00: status: { DRDY '''ERR''' }
 
  ata3.00: status: { DRDY '''ERR''' }
 
  ata3.00: error: { '''UNC''' }
 
  ata3.00: error: { '''UNC''' }
  
 
These are almost always associated with bad sectors.  They should be confirmed by examining a SMART report.  See the [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Troubleshooting page, Obtaining a SMART report]] section.  Then run a SMART long test (instructions in same section), to locate the bad sectors.  You may need to seek advice as to what to do next, as it will depend on your specific situation.
 
These are almost always associated with bad sectors.  They should be confirmed by examining a SMART report.  See the [[Troubleshooting#Obtaining_a_SMART_report|Troubleshooting page, Obtaining a SMART report]] section.  Then run a SMART long test (instructions in same section), to locate the bad sectors.  You may need to seek advice as to what to do next, as it will depend on your specific situation.
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
  
&lt;br&gt;
+
<br>
 
-----
 
-----
 
===Other Drive Issues===
 
===Other Drive Issues===
 
====Unexpected loss of removable drive====
 
====Unexpected loss of removable drive====
  
  &quot;I get a lot of messages like the following in the syslog...
+
  "I get a lot of messages like the following in the syslog...
  What are they and should I be concerned?&quot;
+
  What are they and should I be concerned?"
 
  ---
 
  ---
 
  Mar 10 14:59:10 Tower kernel: '''FAT: Directory bread(block 510) failed'''
 
  Mar 10 14:59:10 Tower kernel: '''FAT: Directory bread(block 510) failed'''
Line 215: Line 259:
 
** Check the syslog for evidence related to its IRQ
 
** Check the syslog for evidence related to its IRQ
 
* more to be added, as discovered
 
* more to be added, as discovered
&lt;br&gt;
+
<br>
 
You will have to power off to get the system back, and most likely, unRAID will want to start a parity check, because it cannot update the flash drive with a proper shutdown.  Any settings changes won't be saved either, until the flash drive is accessible again.
 
You will have to power off to get the system back, and most likely, unRAID will want to start a parity check, because it cannot update the flash drive with a proper shutdown.  Any settings changes won't be saved either, until the flash drive is accessible again.
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
+
<br><br>
  
-----
 
&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;
 
  
==Firmware upgrades==
+
====Unexpected loss of hard drive====
''Warning!  highly disorganized and overlapping information below, copied from Internet sources''
 
  
* http://lime-technology.com/forum/index.php?topic=3142 - Seagate firmware and drive failures, and a method to 'unbrick' a drive
+
Communication with the drive is suddenly lost, and the kernel very quickly disables the drive...  ''(more info and examples to come...)''
 +
<br><br>
  
===Seagate #1===
 
* http://linux.derkeiler.com/Mailing-Lists/Kernel/2009-01/msg09298.html
 
  
&quot;There are a few drives which are currently marked to disable NCQ and warn the user that the firmware that should be upgraded:&quot;
+
====File system errors====
* ST31500341AS
 
* ST31000333AS
 
* ST3640623AS
 
* ST3640323AS
 
* ST3320813AS
 
* ST3320613AS
 
* all for firmware versions SD15 through SD19.
 
-----
 
Firmware Update for ST31500341AS, ST31000333AS, ST3640323AS, ST3640623AS, ST3320613AS, ST3320813AS, ST3160813AS
 
* http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207957
 
  
Firmware Update for STM31000334AS, STM3640323AS, STM3320614AS, STM3160813AS
+
''info and examples and instructions to use [[Check_Disk_Filesystems]] to come...''
* DiamondMax 22
+
<br><br>
* http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207975
 
  
Firmware Update for ST3500320AS, ST3500620AS, ST3500820AS, ST3640330AS, ST3640530AS, ST3750330AS, ST3750630AS, ST31000340AS
 
* Seagate Barracuda 7200.11
 
* AD14, SD15, SD16, SD17, SD18, SD19, SD81  -&gt;  SD1A
 
* http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207951
 
  
Firmware Update for ST3250310NS, ST3500320NS, ST3750330NS, ST31000340NS
+
==Additional references==
* Barracuda ES.2 SATA
 
* http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207963
 
  
===Seagate #2===
+
* [http://ata.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Libata_error_messages Libata error messages]
* http://linux.derkeiler.com/Mailing-Lists/Kernel/2009-01/msg09154.html - quoted below
+
* [http://docs.blackfin.uclinux.org/kernel/generated/libata/ch07.html ATA errors and exceptions]
 +
* [http://ata.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page Linux ATA wiki]
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Technology_Attachment Parallel ATA (PATA)]
 +
* [http://datarecovery.net/articles/hard-drive-sector-damage.html A simple intro to sector structure and errors] - UNC, IDNF, AMNF, etc
 +
* [http://www.mindshare.com/files/ebooks/SATA%20Storage%20Technology.pdf SATA Storage Technology] - pdf file (MindShare ebook)
 +
* [http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-712119/The-challenges-of-testing-SATA.html The challenges of testing SATA] - dispar, crc, 10b8b
  
Tech sites are reporting everywhere a massive flaw in seagate drives that
+
-----
can lock up the drive and make it unusable (the bios doesn't detect it, you
+
<br><br>
can't read the data). Haven't read anything about it here on the lists.
 
Seagate has ack'ed the problem:
 
* http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207931
 
 
 
So, apparently there're a lot of drives on the market (including mine)
 
that can die any day. Are those drives going to be blacklisted? It's
 
still not clear if the firmware update is safe (some affected but
 
working drives are dying after the firmware update), so some people
 
like me is still waiting (and hoping that the drive doesn't die) for
 
more stable firmware updates...
 
 
 
Here is the list of drives+firmware affected, according to the support site
 
as of now. Some models are still being diagnosed.
 
 
 
 
 
Seagate Barracuda 7200.11 (http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207951)
 
 
 
Models Affected:
 
* ST3500320AS
 
* ST3640330AS
 
* ST3750330AS
 
* ST31000340AS
 
Firmware Affected
 
* SD15, SD16, SD17, SD18, SD19, AD14
 
Recommended Firmware Update
 
* SD1A
 
 
 
Seagate Barracuda 7200.11, page 2 (http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207957)
 
 
 
Models Affected:
 
* ST31500341AS
 
* ST31000333AS
 
* ST3640323AS
 
* ST3640623AS
 
* ST3320613AS
 
* ST3320813AS
 
* ST3160813AS
 
Firmware Affected
 
* Still Unknown
 
Recommended Firmware Update
 
* Still Unknown
 
 
 
Seagate Barracuda ES.2 (http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207963)
 
 
 
Models Affected:
 
* ST3250310NS
 
* ST3500320NS
 
* ST3750330NS
 
* ST31000340NS
 
Firmware Affected
 
* Still Unknown
 
Recommended Firmware Update
 
* Still Unknown
 
 
 
DiamondMax 22 (http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207969)
 
 
 
Models Affected:
 
* STM3500320AS
 
* STM3750330AS
 
* STM31000340AS
 
Firmware Affected
 
* MX15 (or higher)
 
Recommended Firmware Update
 
* MX1A
 
 
 
DiamondMax 22 (http://seagate.custkb.com/seagate/crm/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=207975)
 
 
 
Models Affected:
 
* STM31000334AS
 
* STM3320614AS
 
* STM3160813AS
 
Firmware Affected
 
* Still Unknown
 
Recommended Firmware Update
 
* Still Unknown
 
  
  
 
[[Category: Hard drives]]
 
[[Category: Hard drives]]
 
[[Category: Troubleshooting]]
 
[[Category: Troubleshooting]]

Latest revision as of 18:28, 26 November 2016


Page under construction, but hopefully is starting to be helpful
Preface
There are many kinds of drive related errors, and many of them can appear to be very similar, but point to very different issues. Some experience in analyzing these errors is very necessary, because the steps to resolve the problem are highly dependent on what the real problem is. For example, some errors point to a bad cable, other very similar messages point to a failing drive, and others may point to a bad disk controller, poor or incorrect driver, or bad or insufficient power to the drive, etc. There have been far too many cases of drives thrown out or returned for RMA replacement, when the problem was just a bad cable! This page has been designed to help with the analysis of drive problems, and often to recommend what steps to take.
Consider the many components between a program that wants to read or save data, and the physical drive surface that will actually store it. Your program wants to access some data, so requests it, with a 'read block of data' request, but instead of the data it receives an error code or message back, called a 'read error'. We will assume that the program is running fine, so what other components, software or hardware, touched it and might be reporting an error?
  • the file system (the read request goes first to it)
  • the OS I/O caching system (any I/O may go through the various system buffers and caches)
  • the drive controller driver
  • the PCI interface to the controller (includes the actual transfer of packets from the busses to the controller)
  • the drive controller firmware (the software on the controller that actually manages the data flow)
  • the controller port connector
  • the SATA cable connector
  • the SATA cable (could be a backframe connection)
  • the SATA cable connector to the drive
  • the drive's SATA connector
  • the low level SATA link part of the drive firmware
  • the higher level data managing part of the drive firmware
  • the drive's caching systems
  • the drive's mechanical data storage systems (platters and platter spinning, heads and head movement, seeking, sector ID'ing, reading, and writing)
  • the actual drive surface
And you have to add in power issues to the above, power to the system, power to the controller, and power to the drive - any of which could cause unusual issues, hard to diagnose
And that's not all of them! There are more components that could be added between some of the above, and a number of them could be broken down into additional subsystems that could be listed above.
But the point that should really stand out from the above is that the physical drive is only a small part of the whole data handling path! To be fair, possible issues are not evenly distributed across the list. Bad sector errors are much more likely than PCI system errors. And bad SATA cable errors are also much more likely than many of the others. But the big point is that when you get a read or write error, it often has NOTHING to do with the drive! That's why I divide the errors into two classes - interface issues and drive issues. Some errors actually involve the physical drive, the rest involve the interface to the drive. Understanding that distinction is important to diagnosing drive errors.
So just to repeat the lesson: There have been far too many drives discarded, when there was nothing wrong with them!


Analytical Tools

The two most important tools for initial analysis of drive issues are the syslog and the SMART report.
For unRAID v6 and above, you will find them in the Diagnostics zip file. Please see Need help? Read me first!.
For older unRAID versions (any v4 or v5):


Drive problems by keyword


These words or phrases are found within the syslog within lines including and following the phrase "exception EMASK". Some are error flags, some are not. Look up the words you see in the list below, to help you determine what kind of issue you have, and possible steps to take. Drive issues are primarily either drive interface issues (the disk controller, drivers, cables, and power to the drive) or physical issues with the drive itself. In general, if it looks like an interface issue, then the drive is almost certainly completely fine, no matter how many errors you see, and even if it has been disabled!



Drive problems by error message


There are many kinds of drive errors. Examine each section below for the highlighted key words that most closely match the errors you see in your syslog.

The examples below will often include the ATA channel number involved with a particular drive. The actual numbers are not important, and will be different for each drive. The channel itself is usually something like ata3 or ata12, the actual attached drive will be something like ata2.00 and ata13.01. Most will end in .00, as there is only one drive per SATA channel, but IDE or IDE emulating channels may have 2 (eg. ata4.00 and ata4.01, master and slave), and port multipliers and SAS channels can have even more, such as ata5.00, ata5.01, ata5.02, ata5.03, and ata5.04. For more information on these ata drive symbols, see Drive Symbols.


Drive Interface Issues

These are problems with the cables and connections to the drive, both power and data, or the quality of the power supplied. If your errors match one of these, then almost certainly, your drive is completely fine. There have been many drives returned or thrown out, after numerous errors similar to the following issues, that were entirely the fault of the cables or power or connectors used, NOT the drive itself.

Drive interface issue #1

An example:

ata3.00: exception Emask 0x50 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x280900 action 0x6 frozen
ata3.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, interface fatal error
ata3: SError: { 10B8B BadCRC }   often may also include DisPar, UnrecovData, and/or HostInt

From an expert:

"Your machine seems to be suffering genuine link layer problem.
In most cases, this indicates hardware problem and in my experience,
common causes are (in the order of ballpark frequency)...
# inadequate power supply
# device and controller don't like each other on 3Gbps
# cable too long or flaky connector (especially with eSATA cables or genders or backplanes)
# faulty controller or drive"
--
tejun  (http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/12/2/426)
(written by one of the foremost experts)

The presence of BadCRC is a pretty good indicator of a poor quality SATA cable. However, if a better cable does not solve the issue, then it is probably a power problem (loose power cable or backplane connection, poor connectors, poor power splitter, overloaded power supply, too many drives on power rail, bad power supply, etc).




Drive interface issue #2

An example:

   res 40/00:00:48:19:67/00:00:1e:00:00/40 Emask 0x50 (ATA bus error)
   ata3: SError: { UnrecovData HostInt 10B8B BadCRC }

These errors are usually related to a bad cable or cable connector, or possibly bad power. The presence of BadCRC or ICRC is a pretty good indicator of a poor quality SATA cable. However, if a better cable does not solve the issue, then it is probably a power problem (loose power cable or backplane connection, poor connectors, poor power splitter, overloaded power supply, too many drives on power rail, bad power supply, etc).




Drive interface issue #3

An example:

   ata2.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7ff4f SErr 0x400100 action 0x6 frozen
   ata2.00: irq_stat 0x08000000, interface fatal error
   ata2: SError: { UnrecovData Handshk }

From an expert:

"This is transmission error. Most common causes are power related or
unreliable connection especially if backplanes are involved. Is the
problem still reproducible? If so, can you please try to move it to
different power connector and SATA port and see what changes?"
--
tejun




Drive interface issue #4

This is an example of what is probably a loose backplane or cable connection issue: (could be either the SATA connection or the power connection or both)

ata7.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x7 SErr 0x990000 action 0xa frozen
ata7.00: irq_stat 0x00400000, PHY RDY changed
ata7: SError: { PHYRdyChg 10B8B Dispar LinkSeq }
ata7.00: cmd 60/48:00:af:1b:97/00:00:10:00:00/40 tag 0 ncq 36864 in
         res 40/00:10:87:5f:96/00:00:10:00:00/40 Emask 0x10 (ATA bus error)
ata7.00: status: { DRDY }
ata7: hard resetting link
ata7: SATA link up 1.5 Gbps (SStatus 113 SControl 310)
ata7.00: qc timeout (cmd 0xec)
ata7.00: failed to IDENTIFY (I/O error, err_mask=0x4)
ata7.00: revalidation failed (errno=-5)
ata7: failed to recover some devices, retrying in 5 secs

Note: There are no CRC errors here, which normally implicate a bad cable or two.

These problems are often related to a backplane, perhaps loose, perhaps vibration-related, perhaps defective. If the SATA link remains up for awhile, but communications are clearly bad, then the emphasis should probably be on the power connection. The easiest way to test whether it is the fault of the backplane is to reinstall the drive outside of the backplane.

If there is no backplane involved, then the same considerations apply to the cable connections, each end of both the SATA and power cables, including any power cable splitters that may be involved. It is common after opening a computer case, to jostle the cables, and SATA cables are notorious for coming loose, if they aren't the locking type. It is a good habit to check all SATA connections just before closing a case up.

Good quality SATA and power cables and splitters are strongly recommended. Always make certain that they are firmly connected, and not subject to vibration. The same is even more important for backplanes, make sure that drives are firmly and well seated in their trays, and cannot be vibrated loose.



Physical Drive Issues

These are actual errors from the drive itself, perhaps a failing drive, or perhaps just failing sectors. In general, you will always want to Obtain a SMART report for the drive.

Drive media issue #1

A typical example:

ata3.00: cmd 60/00:10:4f:80:81/04:00:66:00:00/40 tag 2 ncq 524288 in
         res 41/40:64:eb:80:81/85:03:66:00:00/40 Emask 0x409 (media error) <F>
ata3.00: status: { DRDY ERR }
ata3.00: error: { UNC }

These are almost always associated with bad sectors. They should be confirmed by examining a SMART report. See the Troubleshooting page, Obtaining a SMART report section. Then run a SMART long test (instructions in same section), to locate the bad sectors. You may need to seek advice as to what to do next, as it will depend on your specific situation.



Other Drive Issues

Unexpected loss of removable drive

"I get a lot of messages like the following in the syslog...
What are they and should I be concerned?"
---
Mar 10 14:59:10 Tower kernel: FAT: Directory bread(block 510) failed
Mar 10 14:59:10 Tower kernel: FAT: Directory bread(block 511) failed

Usually when those errors appear, the system has lost contact with the flash drive.

  • It could be the USB port (loose or faulty)
    • Try re-seating the flash drive
    • Try connecting to a different USB port
  • It could be the flash drive is going bad
    • Test it on another machine
  • It could be a shared IRQ has been disabled, one that serviced this USB port
    • Check the syslog for evidence related to its IRQ
  • more to be added, as discovered


You will have to power off to get the system back, and most likely, unRAID will want to start a parity check, because it cannot update the flash drive with a proper shutdown. Any settings changes won't be saved either, until the flash drive is accessible again.


Unexpected loss of hard drive

Communication with the drive is suddenly lost, and the kernel very quickly disables the drive... (more info and examples to come...)


File system errors

info and examples and instructions to use Check_Disk_Filesystems to come...


Additional references